Pharmacology and Application of Neomycin Sulfate

by arshine

1. Physical and chemical properties

Neomycin sulfate  is white or off-white powder; odorless; very easy to get wet; the aqueous solution is dextrorotatory. This product is easily soluble in water and almost insoluble in ethanol, ether, acetone or chloroform.

2. Pharmacological effects

Neomycin sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. This product has good antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus (methicillin-sensitive strain), Corynebacterium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus and other Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. Cocci, Enterococcus and other poor activity. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and anaerobic bacteria are resistant to this product.


Bacteria have partial or complete cross-resistance to streptomycin, neomycin, kanamycin and gentamicin. Neomycin sulfate injection systemically, has significant nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity, so it is currently limited to oral or topical application.


3. Dynamic properties

Neomycin sulfate is rarely absorbed by oral administration (within 5% ), but a large dose of long-term oral administration can still absorb a considerable amount when there is ulcer or inflammation in the intestinal mucosa, especially when the renal function is impaired, the blood concentration can be significantly increased. After oral administration, most of it is excreted unchanged in feces.


4. Indications

Orally available for:

1) . It can be used alone for bacterial intestinal infections.


2) . Combined with other anti-systemic infection drugs, it is used for the treatment of systemic infection.


5. Usage and dosage

Mixed drink: add 10-20g of this product per 1L of water , drink it in a concentrated dose throughout the day, and use it for 3-5 days.


6. Adverse reactions

1). It can cause loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhea, etc., but long-term application ( more than 10 weeks) does not affect the synthesis of vitamin K.


2). Less dizziness or unsteady walking; significantly decreased urine output or frequency of urination or extreme thirst.


3), even can cause intestinal mucosal atrophy and lead to malabsorption syndrome and fatty diarrhea, and even pseudomembranous colitis.


7. Taboo


This product is contraindicated in animals allergic to neomycin sulfate or other aminoglycoside antibiotics.


8, matters needing attention

1). Cross-allergic patients who are allergic to an aminoglycoside antibiotic such as streptomycin, gentamicin and amikacin may also be allergic to this product.


2). Routine urine and renal function tests should be carried out regularly during the medication process to prevent nephrotoxicity, and hearing tests or audiograms should be carried out.


3). Animals with chronic intestinal infection who take this product orally for a long time, especially those with renal dysfunction or taking other ototoxic or nephrotoxic drugs at the same time, should still pay attention to the possibility of nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity symptoms.


9. Excessive treatment

This product has no specific antagonists. In case of overdose, it is mainly symptomatic therapy and supportive therapy, such as gastric lavage, emetic and fluid replacement.


10. Interaction

1). Oral administration of neomycin sulfate can affect the absorption of penicillin V , vitamin A or vitamin B12 and reduce the curative effect; therefore, it is necessary to closely observe whether the curative effect of the above-mentioned drugs changes in animals. Animals receiving oral neomycin sulfate may have increased vitamin B12 requirements when co-administered with vitamin A.


2). This product should not be used in combination with other nephrotoxic drugs and ototoxic drugs.


3). When used in combination with neuromuscular blocking drugs, it may increase the neuromuscular blocking effect and cause skeletal muscle weakness.

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