The adsorption principle of mycotoxins, what are the types of mildew remover?

by arshine

At present, the pollution of mycotoxins in aquaculture feed is becoming more and more serious, and mildew removers  are gradually being used as conventional additives by more and more farms. Mildew remover products can be seen everywhere in the market. So far, dozens of state-owned brands and a dozen foreign brands are competing. So do you know the adsorption principle of mycotoxins, what are the types of mildew removers?

The adsorption principle of mycotoxins:

The raw materials that are now confirmed to have adsorbed mycotoxins come from three sources: 1-montmorillonite, 2-modified aluminosilicate crystals; 3-yeast cell wall extract. The former two cost less, the latter more expensive.

1. Montmorillonite: It has a 2:1 structure of three crystal layers, 1 octahedron and 2 tetrahedrons, with a thickness of 10 angstroms. There is no hydrogen bond formation between the layers, so the gap between the crystal layers is very wide, and the mycotoxin molecules are easily Adsorbed into the interlayer gaps, it has a large surface area of up to 700 m2 per gram (this is such a clear surface area seen in nature). It is one of the adsorbents for aflatoxin. Montmorillonite mainly adsorbs mycotoxins through the electrostatic imbalance between the internal structural layers. Clay has a strong binding ability to small water molecules and certain mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin, ochratoxin, etc. However, the spacing of the dry montmorillonite structure layer is 0.25-0.7nm, and the water content is 1nm, which is difficult to adsorb certain mycotoxins with large volume, such as F2, T2, fumigatin and so on. At present, there are so-called “nano” adsorption grades in the market. In fact, it is not that the adsorption materials really reach the nanoscale fineness, but the nanoscale crystal layer structure of silicate crystals.

2. Modified aluminosilicate crystals: aluminosilicates such as montmorillonite are modified with some organic substances. The space is expanded by 2-10 times to adsorb macromolecular mycotoxins. However, due to its modification, the adsorption efficiency is difficult to guarantee.

3. Yeast cell wall extract: The main components of yeast cell wall are: divided into three layers: the middle layer is the glycoprotein layer, and the inner and outer layers are the glucan layer and the mannan layer respectively. Glucan (about 30% to 34% of the dry weight of the cell wall) and mannan [about 30% of the dry weight of the cell wall, the mannose oligosaccharides commonly used in actual production are enzymatically decomposed mannan completely from α-( 1,6)-glycosidic linkages are broken at the backbone to generate several oligosaccharide side chains. Among them, mannan oligosaccharide and mannan have the effect of adsorbing mycotoxins, especially for F2 and other mycotoxins.

What are the types of mildew removers?

(1) Mineral mold remover.

Mainly based on aluminosilicate, montmorillonite and bentonite, through the principle of physical adsorption of minerals, part of the mycotoxins are adsorbed, mainly for small molecule mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, which have a strong adsorption force, which can damage the breeding system of livestock and poultry. Zearalenone, fumagillin and ochratoxin, which are harmful to the immune system, have weak adsorption capacity. Due to their non-selective adsorption, they will also adsorb a large amount of vitamins and trace elements such as copper, iron, manganese, and zinc.

At present, some companies modify aluminosilicates such as montmorillonite with some organic substances. It is used to adsorb macromolecular mycotoxins, but because of its modification, the adsorption efficiency is difficult to guarantee.

Due to the low cost, mineral mildew removers are widely used in the market, but their application effects are mixed. This type of mold remover can only physically adsorb part of the mycotoxins, and the mycotoxins do not disappear and will remain in the environment with the excretion of feces, causing secondary harm to the pig herd.

The key to the quality of the mineral mold remover is the quality of the selected raw materials. The mold removal effect of high-purity montmorillonite is worthy of recognition, but many manufacturers use bentonite ore with very low content for packaging, and the effect of such products is poor. , and sometimes have side effects due to their own harmful ingredients. More and more farms have realized the limitations of mineral-based mildew removers, and have turned to higher-end deenzymes, especially bio-adsorbent mildew removers that can detoxify.

(2) Yeast cell walls.

The mannan in the yeast cell wall adsorbs some mycotoxins through electrochemical action, and its adsorption force to aflatoxins is weaker than that of mineral mildew removers, but it is not suitable for other types of mycotoxins that are harmful to livestock and poultry breeding, such as The adsorption capacity of zearalenone, fumagillin and ochratoxin is 3-5 times that of mineral mold remover, and basically does not adsorb trace elements and minerals in feed. Even so, its adsorption rate is limited, and it cannot completely absorb all the mycotoxins in the feed, nor can it relieve the symptoms of mycotoxins that have been produced in the herd.

(3) Decomposition enzymes

The active ingredients are active enzymes such as aflatoxin decomposing enzymes, which can decompose some mycotoxins in a targeted manner, but the enzyme activity is unstable and the cost is high.

Enzymatic detoxification also has great limitations. First, enzymes are extremely selective, and there is no evidence that enzymatic hydrolysis can solve all the toxicity of mycotoxins; second, enzymes are very sensitive to high temperature during feed processing and are easily inactivated; third, the gastrointestinal tract Whether the temperature and complex environment, including the changing pH value, are suitable for the action conditions of the enzyme; whether the secondary products after enzymolysis can be guaranteed to be non-toxic, remains to be studied.

(4) Preservatives

The active ingredients are calcium propionate, propionic acid, potassium sorbate, benzoic acid, and acetic acid. Generally, it should be added by the feed factory. It is meaningless for farmers to add mold remover when using the existing feed. It is often found in the market that many farmers add a “mildew remover” that is a mildew inhibitor before feeding, which is a waste of money.

(5) Chinese herbal medicine

The mechanism of action mainly lies in trying to achieve the purpose of removing mycotoxins by improving the detoxification ability of the liver itself to toxins. There are also two shortcomings of Chinese herbal detoxification agents: (1) The detoxification mechanism of Chinese herbal medicines on mycotoxins is still unclear, and mycotoxins are relatively stable and not easily destroyed, and the effect of detoxification cannot be determined. (2) General Chinese herbal medicines claim to be able to help detoxify in the liver. In fact, the process of mycotoxins being transported from the intestines to the liver is a process of their destruction. Why wait for it to be absorbed and then process it, instead of processing it before it is absorbed into the bloodstream and into the liver, where the mycotoxins are absorbed and eliminated directly from the body?

(6) Compound preparations

Since a single-component mold remover can only absorb part of mycotoxins, there is a combination of minerals, drylan, mycotoxins, etc. on the market to adsorb as many types and quantities as possible through synergistic action. Mycotoxins. The effect of compound preparation type mold remover is obviously better than that of single component mold remover, which can effectively reduce the damage of mycotoxins to the body of pigs, but it does not relieve and clear the symptoms of mycotoxin poisoning that has already produced color in the body of pigs.

(7) New biological mold remover, mold removal + detoxification

To effectively prevent and control the harm of mycotoxins to pig herds, the effective means is to detoxify while removing mildew, and more emphasis is placed on detoxification, that is, to remove the poisoning that mycotoxins have caused to pig herds. In fact, in addition to the poisoning caused by mycotoxins to livestock and poultry, excessive vaccination, excessive heavy metals in feed, and drug residues caused by the overuse of antibiotics will accumulate toxins in livestock and poultry, and damage the kidneys and immune systems of livestock and poultry. High incidence of livestock and poultry diseases. The compound poisoning of livestock and poultry is the real background color disease. At present, most of the mold removal products on the market focus on anti-mold and mildew removal. There are very few mold removal products that can not only absorb mycotoxins, but also relieve mycotoxins, blood endotoxins and the side effects of antibiotics.

The above is the whole content of “The adsorption principle of mycotoxins, what are the types of mildew  removers?” Since the content of mycotoxins in the feed is very high and widespread, and all mildew removers cannot be adsorbed, any mycotoxins adsorbents can only reduce the harm of mycotoxins to varying degrees, but cannot eliminate the losses caused by mycotoxins.

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